This style we can be definitely considered to be the first trend, which began to develop industrial design.  As the name itself indicates, the Victorian style developed in the period of the reign of Queen Victoria and included not only design but also had a big influence on the architecture. It was a period of great transformations, the II  Industrial Revolution broke out, there was the development of industry, technology and inventions and a mass production was also commenced. Victorian style was filled with ornamentation and was marked by a penchant for the exaggerated decorativeness and carving. Motives were being used from different periods (eclecticism). In a later phase, the style has also found supporters across the ocean – in the United States of America.

Style highlights:
- distinguished by the severity of the numerous ornaments and form reloaded
- artificial pomposity of ornaments, decorations, which occupied every available space in interiors
- lack of consistency of style and quality, which seemed to be cheesy
- application of new materials
- eclecticism (the use of styles from different periods)

Victorian style can be divided into three phases:
- early phase (early Victorian, 1837-1850) – was dominated by Neo-Gothic and Neo-Classicism,
- middle phase (mid-Victorian, 1850-1875) – eclectic and a large number of ornaments,
- late phase (late Victorian, 1875-1901) – new trends initiated by J. Ruskin.

The Great Exhibition in London, which took place in 1851 in the Crystal Palace building was a crucial point in the field of industrial design. There was for the first time presented the being produced industrially. The building of the project of Joseph Paxton was a kind of specific manifesto of the iron and glass age. Whereas, the exhibition presenting the Victorian style was overfilled with the decorative art what definitely underlined the inconsistency of the contemporary current and indicated strong tendencies of the society to the splendour.

XX century was a period of great transformations and the development of the civilization. Thanks to the II Industrial Revolution as well as thanks to the possibility of obtaining low-cost materials a development of the mass production took place. Artists and craftsmen were substitute by machines, products could be made in the unusually fast, economical and simple way, which unfortunately simultaneously influenced on their shoddy appearance. The Industrial Revolution was not only associated with the development of the huge industrial factory, but under her comprehending we also understand the sequence of the economic and social changes. The economic upheaval brought about changes within the production organization, changes in the nature of business, the rules of the production calculation. Changes in the social structure were caused by the downfall of the significance of craftsmen, peasants and large land owners, whereas there was increased significance of working class and industrial bourgeoisie. At the same time followed the concentration of the population around major cities. That the most important revolution in the modern history took place at different times and in varying extend in every countries, but unfortunately in the vast areas of the world it has not occurred yet.

Inventions that has changed the world:
1852 – The airship prototype (Giffard, France)
1853 – Syringe and needle injections (Charles Gabriel Pravaz
1853 – oil lamp (Ignacy Lukasiewicz, Poland),
1854 – The first electric light bulb (Goebel, Germany), a new way of oil crude (Ignacy Lukasiewicz, Poland),
1855 – matches (Lundstrm, Sweden)
1855 – can opener (Robert Yeates)
1856 – mass production of steel (Bessemer, England)
1857 – lift (Otis, USA)
1859 – Levis Strauss jeans trousers (USA)
1859 – combustion engine, gas (Lenoir, France)
1861 – a bicycle fitted with pedals (Enrest Pierre Michaux)
1861 – Plastics (Alexander Parkes)
1863 – Metro (London)
1867 – reinforced concrete (Monier, France), dynamite (Nobel, Sweden)
1868 – margarine (France), canned meat (USA),
1869 – opening of the Suez Canal,
1876 – telephone (Bell, USA)
1877 – phonograph (Edison, USA), microphone (Edison, USA).
1879 – electric locomotive (Germany), electric bulb (Edison, USA)
1881 – electric tram (Siemens, Germany)
1882 – electric iron (H. Seely)
1886 – Coca-Cola (John Pemberton)
1886 – Production of aluminium on industrial scale (France)
1887  the record player (Berliner, USA)
1889 – the Eiffel Tower (Paris)
1892 – diesel engine (Rudolf Diesel, Germany)
1893 – automatic pistol (Hugh Borchardt)
1896 – Radio (Popov, Russia, Marconi, Italy)
1897 – Aspirin (Felix Hoffman)
1900 – Cinema (Leon Gaumont)

Summary:

Saying „Money cannot buy your taste” perfectly captures the atmosphere of those times where the upper class could afford to buy the latest products, simultaneously filled their homes with trinkets, which in effect gave the interiors shoddy and comical appearance.

However you can not overemphasize the importance of the Victorian style, because in spite of its pompousness and the avocation for all ornaments, it was an announcement of the further changes in the design, which influenced on functionality of everyday objects.



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