Style highlights:
- using new materials such as concrete, steel, glass,
- simple forms, devoid of decorative elements,
- using simple mass, smooth finishes of walls and open space plan in architecture,
- austere interiors,  it was desirable to provide order,
- modular, simple furniture,
- using toned down, natural colours.


Modernism is the trend in avant-garde art, design and architecture. The main objective of this trend was to strive for originality, innovations, thereby rejecting the tradition and false rationalism. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values, in exchange was interested in it what is unusual and unknown. This often led to experimentation with form, highlight the processes and materials being used and it showed tendencies to the abstraction.

The modernism was a kind of specific idea rather than a style. It assumed that the price should not reflect the quality of produced products. Good quality products should be available to everyone, rather than only for the rich elite like it was in case of Art Deco. The aim was to reach the multitude of people. At the same time they were counting on the functionality of products and flats, taking into account urban planning spaces more and more limited.

The Industrial Revolution brought a lot of technological innovations and new materials. Modernists started using these the latest technological developments in their projects like  glass, steel or concrete. This art was recognised as elegant and dandy. Modesty, simplicity, frugality in the decorative art and furnishing of the interiors, presented the meaning of the modernists motto “the less is better”. Designers and architects of the modernism were supporters of the functionalism. Buildings were supposed to present their purpose. They were supposed to be designed from the inside and later on influence on the exterior of the buildings.

At homes, the walls were painted in white, black, brown, beige colours and were creating the background for open spaces. Natural finishing of interiors was applied. Floors were being made mainly of wood. Home accessories such as carpets, lamps were presented in more vivid colours like red, yellow, blue. They were supposed to give a more personal character of the interior at the same time to warm severe spaces. Furniture and accessories used in moderation, were significant aspect of this style of art. They had definitely functional character, because creating ornaments was recognised as the waste of time, money as well as materials. The mass production was supposed to assist all assumptions of the modernism: economy of ornaments and materials, simplicity, functionalism, quality of products. In interwar times, modernists opposed the war and through their works aspired to build a better world.

Adolf Loos, Louis  Sullivan, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, William Morris, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, László Moholy-Nagy, and Marcel Breuer, Joseph Hoffman and painter Koloman Moser, as Gustav Klimt, Picasso, Matisse, Mondrian

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