Describing the history of the design it is impossible to omit the Bauhaus school. This Art college, which was founded in Germany, was arising with specific antithesis of the Arts and Crafts movement. It sought to use technology in mass production, in the same time threw away single handicraft which in its workmanship was a luxury good, being too expensive for the average society class. The art presented by artists of the Bauhaus expressed the simplicity in the form, was using repetition of elements and textures. They were using straight, regular lines. The importance of materials such as plastic, aluminium, chrome, concrete, steel was emphasized. Above all they were putting the functionality, as well as the simplicity which does not interfere with human life.

bauhaus

Style highlights:
- simplicity of the forms, lines, shapes,
- regular, repetitive forms,
- projects which give the impression of lightness, using new materials to achieve this purpose,
- using  mostly aluminium, steel, chrome, plastic and glass,
- simple, beautiful, but at the same time inexpensive furniture,
- functionality of the product – a form derived from the function,
- using frequently concrete in constructions, including interiors,
- lack of ornamentation,
- regional conditions, climates, landscapes and inhabitants customs were leading into the architecture form.

Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in Weimar from merging the Academy of Fine Arts and the School of Arts and Crafts.  In 1925 it was moved to Dessau, and between 1932 and 1933 was operating in Berlin. The school was managed by three directors: Walter Gropius (from 1919 to 1928), Hannes Meyer (from 1928 to 1930) and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (from 1930 until 1933). In 1933 under the Nazis pressure, according to which the school presented too abstract approach to the art, it began to be closed.

The founder of the school – Walter Gropius claimed that all craftsmen are artists, as well as all artists should be good craftsmen. Hence, the school established educating artists with the equal course. The school education began with six-month introductory course in which the students were studying art history, drawing, painting, they were allowed to experiment with different forms, colours, materials. The proper workshop lasted three years, during which pupils could decide whether they want to specialize in the field of art or craft. By finishing this course students gained the education in a wide range from metallurgy, spatial composition till the sculpture and mural art. The studies of architecture was not only theoretical but mainly practical.

Representatives:

Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Anni Albers,Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer,Max Bill,Marianne Brandt, Marcel Breuer, Avgust Černigoj, Christian Dell, Werner Drewes, Lyonel Feininger, Naum Gabo, Ludwig Hilberseimer, Ludwig Hirschfeld Mack, Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Otto Lindig, Gerhard Marcks, László Moholy-Nagy, Piet Mondrian, Oskar Schlemmer, Lothar Schreyer, Joost Schmidt, Naum Slutzky, Gunta Stölzl.



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